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Stroke

Stroke

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Stroke is a disease that disrupts the flow of oxygen and blood to the brain. Over two thousand eight hundred and eighty cells of the brain die every day, as a result of the stroke. This paper focuses on the teaching experience of stroke. The following is the summary of our teaching plan:

  • Duration will be about an hour per station
  • Places for teaching will include: churches, schools and public forums
  • Supplies and material needed : power point, sources of electricity, charts , brochures and blood pressure equipment
  • We target the faithful, teachers and school children, aged and young, women and men.We shall visit the homes of aged and sick afternoon from 2-3pm from Monday –Friday then churches on Saturdays and Sundays from 11-12pm
  • Topic of discussion: causes and prevention of stroke in the society. Creating awareness in the society to identify the secondary and primary sources of stroke.

Stroke is categorized into two, and these include; ischemic and hemorrhagic. Hemorrhagic is caused by the bleeding of blood in the brain, whereas blood blockage causes ischemic. Both types prevent the supply of blood to the brain. Stroke has a score of impacts on the human beings. These effects include death, problems in behavior and judgment, speech, language and memory problems, paralysis, visual impairment and abnormal reflexes (Brick, 2010).There are scores of symptoms for the stroke: difficult in swallowing, slurred speech, dizziness, loss of vision, seizure, severe headaches and challenge in understanding speech ,sudden vomiting and brief loss of consciousness. There are fundamental risks for this condition, smoking, sickle cell anemia, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes. It is worth noting that is severe. Depending on the race, gender, age, and heredity. For instance, besides to the factors that lead to stroke, the women are at the higher risk than men because of hormones, pregnancy, reproductive organs, and childbirth. It is also significant to note that the risk of blacks getting is twice than whites, but the rate of whites dying from stroke is higher than blacks(Bushnell and McCullough, 2014). Age also is another factor; statistics reveals that about thirty-four percent of people below sixty-five years in America were affected by stroke in the year 2009.

About eight percent of stroke can be prevented. For instance, a smoker can stop the habit of smoking. Whereas the increase in the heart rate is accompanied by slight decreases in the stroke volume, it is also significant that high outputs of the total cardiac are exhibited when one exercises; unlike in the resting situation (Brick, 2010).It is also worth noting that the left ventricle receives blood during the diastole session of relaxation. The latter process implies that the myocardium would stretch. More forceful contractions that the heart exhibits at the systole stage is attributed to the blood that the heart preloads into the left ventricle. Indeed, when one experiences intensive exercises, a decrease in the diastolic volume is experienced. Therefore, the role of the heart’s rate in the latter case is to counteract the impact of reduced diastolic volumes; to sustain a high cardiac volume.

During exercise, numerous peripheral changes occur in other parts of the body. For individuals at rest, a single capillary is deemed functional; in comparison with others that constitute 30-40 in the capillary beds. It is critical to note that the need for limited amounts of oxygen in the large muscles is attributed to their minimal usage during rest. However, upon the commencement of exercise, necessary oxygen increases in level, followed by the opening up of more capillaries. The latter increases the gaseous exchange surface area. The beginning of training is of further implication because of the resultant dilation of the arterioles in which more blood is allowed to flow through. On an experiment regarding the role of nitric oxide in the dilation of blood vessels, dogs were used. The outcome suggested that chronic exercises were correlated to the higher production of nitric oxide.

Regarding additional bodily adjustments, areas that are targeted by blood circulation processes are inclusive. On one hand, the physical activities such as rowing, swimming or running yield increases in the cardiac output. On the contrary, the amount of cardiac output varies from one body part to another. Therefore, selective mechanisms in the body dictate the direction that the blood flows to, linked to the case of bodily mechanisms when the body is at rest. The particular distribution of blood in the body is organized in such a way that large muscular groups such as the lower legs and thighs receive large amounts during exercises that entail running. However, other parts such as the kidneys and digestive tracts receive minimal amounts of blood. Indeed, striking associations between perceived deviations in the flow of renal blood during exercise and at rest are shown in the textbook. For instance, when an individual is at rest, the percentage of blood that flows to the kidney is recorded at 20 percent. The same organ records one percent of the cardiac output during exercise. Of particular concern is to highlight the fact that increases 250 milliliters of blood are received in the kidney during training and 1100 milliliters at rest. The case of the brain indicates that 1000 milliliters are received during training; compared to the approximated 700 milliliters at rest. Bodily adaptations suggest that excellence is achieved during exercise, yet the body does not burn out when one is at rest.


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Preload is defined as the process through which atria-ventricular fillings are achieved prior to the contraction process. However, the myocardial filaments do not reach optimal lengths that would enable them to exhibit maximal contractile forces. Rather, increases in the preload stretch the muscle towards optimal length. It results in increases in the contractile strength in which stroke volumes increase — to allow the pumping of more blood per beat. It is worth highlighting that muscle contractility lessens with decreasing amounts of preload. It implies that less blood would leave the heart on each contraction.

During exercise, the heart rate is expected to increase. Indeed, the rate of the heartbeat is directly proportional to the intensity of exercising. The latter is attributed to the fact that inhibitions occur in the parasympathetic nerves with an increase in energy demands. It, therefore, increases the activation of sympathetic nerves (National Stroke Association; National Stroke Association). It is necessary to identify a particular concern is to understand the fact that the heart rate increase during the exercise because of the release of catecholamine. However, the increase in the heart rate does not imply that the stroke volume would remain constant. Indeed, the efficiency of the heart at higher rates is lower than the case when the rates are lower. It implies that at higher rates, the stroke volume would be lower. Overall, the cardiac output increases because of the increased heart rate that surpasses the stroke volume that supposedly decreases.

Comparing the case of trained athletes to that of untrained individuals, the resting heart rate in the trained athletes is expected to be lower. Because the same amount of blood can be pumped in the athletes’ bodies at very low heart rates. Therefore, trained athletes undergo bodily adjustments in such a way that their stroke volumes exceed those of the untrained individuals (Dudas, 2012). Indeed, maximum heart rate i8s independent of bodily fitness. A similar heart rate can be exhibited in persons who live a sedentary lifestyle; the same situation to the trained athletes. However, a significantly higher cardiac output is displayed in the trained athletes because they have larger stroke volume.

Various factors affect the stroke volume that individual’s exhibit. One of the factors is the size of the heart chamber. Whereas hearts that are abnormally large may be associated with heart diseases, they may be attributed to the adjustments towards cardiovascular exercises that are intense. Therefore, more robust and more significant heart chambers may expel and take in more blood in every pump. Such a scenario is associated with increases in the stroke volume. However, the stroke volume can also be modified by adjusting the end systolic volume (ESV) or the end diastolic volume (EDV).

Increases in EDV by increasing the amount of blood that enters the heart or, slowing down the rate of the heartbeat are well outlined. For instance, heart rates increased during exercise, and rests are expected to yield slowed heartbeats. The inverse association between stroke volume and activity implies that a decrease in the stroke volume is simultaneous to the increase in the heart rate during exercise (Bushnell and McCullough, 2014). The venous return is achieved by muscular contractility 's which increasing rates of venous return, minimize the decrease in the stroke volume. The position is also a crucial factor that plays a significant role. For instance, whereas athletes perform exercises while in upright posts, the reverse is the case for the swimmers; with the latter exhibiting venous returns at higher rates. If an individual is in a supine position, the stroke volume is expected to be higher; regardless of the activity (whether at rest or during exercise). As gravity operates against the progress of blood towards the heart, individuals in upright positions may pool in the lower extremities. Therefore, exercise prevents hypertension, obesity, and other heart-related diseases, and, as a result, stroke is prevented. According to the study, the majority of people are unaware about the stroke. In the United States of America, sixteen million persons are ignorant, twenty-three million are aware but are not treated, and thirteen million people are inadequately treated (Campinha, 2003).

It is evident that the majority of the population can be reached by educating them through both print and electronic media since it’s hard to attend to all blood pressure affected people in a few hours.

References

Brick, N. (2010).Communication skills training for healthcare professionals working with patients with Stroke patients and their families, and carers.Clinical Journal of Oncology Nursing,16(6), 640.doi: 10.1188/12.CJON.640 Bushnell C and McCullough L, (2014). American Heart Association/American Stroke Association Prevention Guidelines. Stroke. London: Oxford University Press Campinha, J. (2003).The cultural competence in the delivery of healthcare services: A culturally competent model of care.Transcultural C.A.R.E. Associates. Dudas, K. I. (2012). Cultural competence: an evolutionary concept analysis.NursingEducation Perspectives, 33(5), 317-21. National Stroke Association; National stroke association.org


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