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Nursing & Primary Health Care Project

Nursing & Primary Health Care Project

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This project aims at clarifying some of the issues of primary health care about dealing with health care. Health sectors have advanced to the extent that there is a complex relationship between general practice and primary health care. It this case we focus on the health breast care. First, the project has covered a brief overview of PHC as a model of care and definition of key words and phrases. Other subsequent issues and sub-topics on PHC that the project covers include PHC model principles, obstacles to achieving proper health breast care and strategies to counter the obstacles. To strengthen the project bases on some case studies such as health program in Al-Mata (Rogers & Veale 1968).

The first section of the report on the project gives a description on the knowledge about primary health care on health breast care with definition of most important vocabularies in the sector of health. The second bit elaborates on the principles governing the PHC model program. Some of the principles are universal while others are local applicable in countries like Australia and a few others. From here, the report moves to underpins of PHC on matters concerning health breast care due to the key principles. The fourth stage is the explanation on obstacles that hinder proper services of the model on matters relating to health breast care. Lastly, the project covers on the strategies nurses and other relevant personnel have to apply to win over the obstacles. The five sections cover a lot on primary health care model that many can learn from to get rid of diseases that attack the breasts.


Rogers & Veale (1968) describe primary health care as a term in the health industry with diverse meaning to many people. Many people try to look at the term from the perspective of how they are related to the steps in general practise and the difference that exists between the two. According to them, primary health care may be the essential heath that is provisional and bases much on practical, technology use, scientific and social methods that are acceptable. They propose that PHC is at the center of fucus on the health system of any nation. In addition, it serves the main engine on governing health conditions and care. In other words PHC is the emmidiate contact among families in their given communities with the country’s health system thus taking health services to the closest proximity to the people. It reaches to where people work, at their homes and any place they converge for discussions and meetings. It constitute s the first elements of a contuing health procedures. Without PHC medical offiers operate with lots of difficulties.

Another important word that one has to understand is the term health breast care. It is not easy to understand knowledge on PHT in enhancing proper and efficent health of the breasts when one is not conversant with the idea of health breast care. This refers to the precausions and methods of maintaining the healthy state of he breasts. There are several diseases tha attack the breast. One of the most common one is cancer. Many people especially women have lost their lives from the menace of cancer. It is expensive to treat. Therefore perecausions on how one may avoid contracting the disease is very important.


i. The program believes in commitment in the empowering of the community

Community empowerment has been one of the key principles on which the PHC program thrives. The program believes in giving relevant resources and funds to the society as a way of empowering it to solve its own breast related health matters. This happens when the PHC team shares equipments and other important tools that may benefit the sector among the families that are prone to the peril of breast health risk. By teaching the groups on how to avoid messing with the health of breasts, the team empowers them with knowledge of fighting the practices that may lead to the breaching of the conditions for good breast health care.

ii. Collaborative local and advanced networking

Primary health care programs tries collaborating with local and other intermediate networks in offering services to the people (Green 2008). Networking gives way for the team to reach the targeted areas. Many have been able to access the services even in the remote areas due to this principle. It has facilitated penetration into the interior parts of the country. This implies that the program works towards building strong partnerships with stakeholders and other relevant parties in offering the best services to the people (Barneji 2003).

iii. Provision of equity in giving of health care

In PHC program, all people are equal in the presence of the doctors and experts. They offer same services to all the targeted groups in the society.

iv. Use of several strategies for attaining the goals

Nutbeam Don explains the strategies that PHC teams apply in order to achieve their goals and mission. Strategies have formed the strength of the teams and offer direction on the way forward in case of crisis outbreak (2008). Some of the strategies have worked perfectly they include; building of proper and healthy policy, educating the communities on the importance of primary health care, the teams strengthening the actions of the community by involving the people in rendering services and creating supportive environments that provide living and working conditions to the people. These have been instrumental in the attaining of the goals.

v. Overemphasis on research and practice basing on evidence

The programs relies on research and surveys on some of the most important health matters partaking breast health care. Researches forms the basis of prove for the course of action health officers take in making decisions involving maintaining good breast care among many people from diverse societies.

vi. Utilization of multi-disciplinary methods and groups

This principle has come out strongly in several situations that PHC intends to accomplish on clinical care and the broader part of the support that people demand for from the program. Unique health experts alongside the professionals and health services do much together in an approach based on integrated teams. This has helped the program get where it is in the current times. Barneji Debabar insists that this principle is crucial in eliminating most of the obstacles to proper services in PHC (2003).


Insufficient resources

Many hospitals lack enough resources for carrying out scientific research and implementation. The primary health care depends much on findings about problems and practicing corrective practices to control spread and persistence of diseases and health disorders such as breast cancer. To achieve much in advocating for nice health breast care, there is need for enough funds for carrying out the necessary activities. For instance, the medical specialists require seminars and educative forums to teach people on the importance of health breast care. Money is relevant in the hire the teachers and employ relevant staff in taking surveys on the same topic of discussion.

Shortage of skilled work force

One of the sectors of the public that demands for more staff in most countries is the medical section. Fewer nurses and doctors do the implementation of programs. The government has to employ more medical skilled practitioners who will work hand in hand with existing doctors and nurses in fulfilling the mission of keeping health breast care at the pick of people’s heart. Primary health care department lacks enough resourceful people that are in the position to steer the programs efficiently. The few who appear present end up doing incomplete work and insufficient due to the large ratio of patient to doctor (Jackson & Daily 2004).

Jackson & Daily puts forth that some of the staff lacks relevant experience (2004). PHC has principles that the staff operates under. Decision making by the top management is key to the implementation of the programs. Unreliable staff may mess up the whole PHC model and programs. It is relevant for the doctors and aiding team to make proper and formal decisions based on their experience and skills they have acquired while serving in the industry. It is not easy to achieve the target goals without recruiting a working team full of skills and expertise.

Lack of integration

Many research teams and hospital departments such as the primary health care unit have ignored integration of the general units and the other departments. These may involve integration of data and other resourceful information that they may have in common. Integration minimizes on the expenses. For instance, when one carries out data surveys on women with breast cancer in a district, he or she may provide information for general health care departments. The same information may be useful to primary health care. Integration of the data minimizes the costs of doing research on the same topic. Integration promotes effective resources allocation and usage by the staff.

Ignorance and illiteracy

Some of the beneficiaries of such programs are sometimes disadvantaged laterally. Ignorance has also been a treat to implementation of PHC, as the patients tend to ignore instructions from the doctors and the nurses. Both combined lowers the rate of implementation of the program. In fact, many have not perceived primary health care on maintaining the health of the breasts.


Shukla Abbey (2008) suggests building of proper and healthy policy is one of the ways of overcoming the obstacles in the implementation of PHC program. The policy is meant to foster equity. Legislation, important fiscal solutions, government taxation and changes in the organization lead to the creating of the policy a a way of fostering equitable resource allocation in accordance with the mission of dealing with the obstacles that hinder total delivery of primary health care services. Most of the hospitals lack policies hence end up delivering less when it comes to PHC services.

Creating supportive environments that provide living and working situations that are more safe, stimulating, and fulfilling ones satisfaction and art of enjoying in their lives. Supportive environments form favorable conditions for people taking the program positively in maintain the right breast health care. It all begins with the self-perception under favorable environmental conditions. By setting the supporting theme, the pace in which the program takes place increases rapidly due to the positive image towards the services that emanate from the program.

The team should strengthen the actions of the community by involving people in the offering of health care services. It is important for the team to orient the health services to the people in line with promoting the community strength. Many lack the go ahead of helping the experts in implementing the program services (Green 2008).

The PHC experts need to educate the communities on the importance of primary health care to the society. This curbs the obstacle of ignorance and illiteracy. The government should also incorporate Public Health Care as one of the topics in Science departments in schools and colleges. These will enable the users of the knowledge to develop good personal skills. The students will have the ground for joining medicine faculties paving way for more people who can work with such programs. These will enhance the integration of macro and micro issues on health matters. It is all about doing the right thing at the right time and to the right people (Watson 2008).


Primary health care is a term that people have linked to many meanings in different scenarios. This essay discusses the best definition of PHC in lines with breast health care. Some of the knowledge has traces from sources on health matters in Australia (Wise 2008) and Alma-Ata (Barneji 2003). In the introduction part of the essay, we get to learn the meaning of the term and other two terms that have close associate in health sector. At one of the policy levels, building of proper and healthy policy, educating the communities on the importance of primary health care, the teams strengthening the actions of the community by involving the people in rendering services and creating supportive environments that provide living and working conditions to the people. These have enhanced the program to achieve much of their goals.

The report covers on the principles that govern PHC, some of the challenges that the program’s team face, strategies that counter the obstacles, and ways in which PHC promotes keeping stable breast health care (Guest 2008).


Barneji, Debabar. "Reflection on twenty-fifth aniversary of Almata declaration." Who is Who?, 2003: 815-817.

Editorial. "Looking back, looking forward: enduring issues in nursing." Journal of Nursing Management, 2008: 16, 1-3. Green, Andrew. "Reflections on Alma Ata." Global Social Policy, 2008: 8, 155.

Guest, Editorial. "Capacity building within primary healthcare." Quality in Primary Care, 2008: 141-143.

Hancock, Trevor. "Responses to Don Nutbeam’s commentary: what would the Ottawa." Critical Public Health, 2008: 443-445.

Jackson, Debra, and John Daily. "Current Challenges and Issues Facing Nursing in Australia." Nursing Science quarterly, 2004: 352-355.

Nutbeam, Don. "What would the Ottawa Charter look like if it were written today?" Critical Public Health, 2008: 435-441.

Rogers, Wendy, and Bronwyn Veale. Primary Health Care and General Practice: A scoping report. Bedford Park: Flinders Press, 1968.

Sadeque, Zahir. "How Climate Change Will Shape the Social Policy Framework." Global Social Policy, 2010: 6-9.

Shukla, Abhey. "Re-Reading the Alma Ata Declaration: The Need to Say the Unsaid, to Do the Undone, and to Think for the 21st Century." Global Social Policy, 2008: 164-166.

Watson, Michael. "Going for gold: the health promoting." Quality in primary care, 2008: 177-185.

Wise, Marilyn. "Health promotion in Australia: Reviewing the past and looking." Critical Public Health 18 (2008): 497-508.

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