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Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis

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Week 3, Discussion Question 3

Tuberculosis

Tuberculosis and HIV remain the key drivers of most countries’ morbidity and mortality, especially in struggling economies (World Health Organization, 2013). . Efforts and strategies to identify and reduce infections in the community, diagnose DS-TB and DR-TB early, initiate early treatment and prevent TB in people aligning with HIV.

There are five mycobacteria responsible for tuberculosis; Mycobacterium tuberculosis,

Mycobacterium Bovis, mycobacterium Africanum, mycobacterium Microti and Mycobacterium Canetti.M. tuberculosis is however considered the commonest (Roy et al. 2014). Tuberculosis in normally transmitted from person to person through the air by droplet nuclei (

Signs and symptoms for a person suffering from TB may include a general deterioration in health, high fever, and weight loss, shortness of breath, chest pains, night sweats and dry coughs. There may also be choroidal tubercles on funduscopy. Chest X-ray may reveal diffuse, uniformly distributed, small military nodules and the sputum blood streaked (South Africa, 2014).Treatments for positive purified protein derivative aims at curing the patient, reducing transmission to others, preventing the development of acquired resistance, relapse or deaths from related complications (South Africa, 2014). A continuous treatment with different drug regimens for an estimated period of six to eight months is normally prescribed for patients diagnosed with active respiratory TB. During the first two months, treatment is provided with fixed dose combinations of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide and ethambutol, and isoniazid and rifampicin, for the continuous phase (South Africa, 2014).

BacilleCalmette-Guérin, BCG, is a vaccine for tuberculosis (TB) disease. According to World Health Organization (2013), BCG protects against M tuberculosis infection as well as progression from infection to disease. In a meta-analysis of 14 studies by WHO, vaccinate persons were less likely than unvaccinated individuals to reveal evidence of TB infection after exposure. Interferon–gamma release assays (IGRA), which can detect M. tuberculosis infection and discriminate it from prior BCG vaccination, is usually recommended for such cases, (WHO, 2013).

References

Roy, A., Eisenhut, M., Harris, R. J., Rodrigues, L. C., Sridhar, S., Habermann, S., ...&Abubakar, I. (2014). Effect of BCG vaccination against Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in children: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ,349, g4643.

South Africa. Department of Health.(2014). National Tuberculosis Management Guidelines 2014.Department of Health.

World Health Organization. (2013). Systematic screening for active tuberculosis: principles and recommendations. World Health Organization.


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