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Psychological Rehabilitation

Psychological Rehabilitation

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Psychosocial rehabilitation basically involves treating individuals with mild to severe mental breakdown. These individuals are more or less isolated from the rest of their normal world and are taken to a restricted area where they receive the treatment. The isolation is for a good course in that the victims of the mental disorders are made healthier individuals or better yet are restored to their normal senses. The rehabilitation occurs in known institutions that offer the recovery programs. The centers are equipped with professionals and also all the necessary tools to help the sick people, (Blustein, 2005).

The professionals involved are simply therapists that are held accountable for the improvement of the victims’ mental transitions to reach that of a normal person. This is where psychiatric nursing tags along. This generally refers to a different kind of nursing practice where the nurses are specialized to take care of individuals with mental disorders. Their specialty goes a long way in that the nurses only handle medications that are meant for the mentally handicapped. It is therefore difficult for a nurse from a normal hospital to work in rehabilitation center. In addition they might find it hard to deal with a mental patient.

Therefore, psychiatric nursing is special and complex compared to the normal nursing practices. The concepts that come along with psychiatric nursing are few and several theories have been put forward to explain how the practice is embarked on. There is history of how psychiatric nursing and the rehabilitation institutions came about. The earliest sites date back between the 8th and 9th centuries in the Middle East. Others were developed later on in Europe and the United States of America, (Askwith, 2007).

Psychosocial rehabilitation includes the assessment of the institution and the program as a whole. The program as earlier stated aims to help the sick individuals reconnect with their former world and the rest of the society. The impact the program has on a patient is followed up and the reaction towards the treatment. This varies depending on the patient and the severity of the mental breakdown. The assessment on a patient is done from the day of admission and throughout the program up until the patient is considered ‘normal’ and is released back to the society.

The assessment while the patient is undertaking the rehabilitation program comprises of several categories. Depending on the patient, the basic things are checked. For instance, a patients ability to do survive on their own general issues such as going to the bathroom, feeding and also dressing oneself. These are among the few daily human duties that every person performs on their own. This is therefore the general assessment category.

The patient’s ability to interact with other people and also opening up to the professional team set out to help them is assessed. This area of assessment may involve how well the patient can communicate and unleash what they feel and how they react towards the many ‘strangers’ in the institution. The psychiatrists have the huge role to help the patients accept what they are going through and show them why it is crucial to reform. All patients are different and this is the key point to note when dealing with them. They all react differently and take different periods of time to fully recover. However after the assessment is done, the specialists can decide of a patient can continue recovering at home near the family and friends. Back in the BC era, employment in rehabilitation centers was not at large. This is as a result of various known reasons or beliefs. Mostly people who suffered from mental illness were seen as a danger to the society. This scared away most clinical students who wanted to specialize in psychiatry. Nonetheless, there appeared a few people who worked with these isolated victims of mental impairment. Employment was to everyone who was with a mentally ill person, whether at home or in an institution. At home, before the victim was taken to a rehabilitation center the family members were sort of employed fully to their sick member.

Employees in a center included the most needed psychiatrists, doctors, nurses and also voluntary workers. Employment was also given to social workers to help keep the institution clean and hygienic just like normal hospitals. Since a rehabilitation center is a home for the mentally challenged, more workers were needed. The role center acts like a place full of children who cannot do anything by themselves. Moreover, people were employed to watch over the sick and whatever activity they get involved with so as not to cause any damage to themselves and the people around them, (Simpson, 2004). Employment in a mental hospital is mostly to the professional doctors and nurses who work patiently to ensure they restore the sick into the society without any shred of insanity. This takes a lot of courage and expertise in order to give fruitful results. As time went by, more people in the medical field gained interest in psychiatric field and the psychiatric nurses gained better pay as their work was recognized as the most challenging. With this improvement more people became employed in rehabilitation centers and it became less scary. There was a group of specialists the first started an organization that aimed to rescue all the mentally ill and give them their lives back. This group was from Newyork and was known as WANA. (We Are Not Alone)

Education in psychosocial rehabilitation had not spread in the early centuries. This is due to the lack of interest in most medical students then. Nevertheless, a few specialists decided to begin the education with nurses. The education program was now as psychiatric nursing whereby all nursing students had to have the course as one of their qualifications. This boosted the PSR programs as they now had access to nurses with full expertise. All clinical experience had to include the psychiatry nursing and was even accredited to the students.

Psychiatry education involves three major courses of the emergency mental cases. They include the following: practical assessment at a rehabilitation centre, clinical study of the practical assessment and finally a clinical study of the overall psychiatric field. Generally the certificate issued to those who have succeeded portrays knowledge on mental health issues and the experience in PSR i.e. psychosocial rehabilitation. Students become specialists after a wide coverage of mental disorder and having their hands on patients.

Linda Richards was a lady in psychiatry who started the first school for psychiatric nursing in the United States. The school, Boston City College, formalized the training in the country and admission of interested nurses began. They educated and equipped the students with the necessary knowledge and skills in the PSR area of expertise. This dates back in1882. During the 19th century a number of clinical colleges that aimed to produce psychiatric nurses came up at large. This form of nursing began being treated with respect as it involved total transition of people to better persons of the society. Nurses were taught how to diagnose and also treat people with mental illness. The education for the nurses included counseling lessons as they had the chance to talk to the mentally ill while taking care of them, (Haigh, 1999).

The concepts that come with psychosocial rehabilitation also date back from the BC period. One of the known concepts is the safe asylum concept. This was a program that opted to isolate all the mentally disabled and put them in one institution. This concept is currently being practiced all over the universe. The safe asylum is basically the rehabilitation site and it aims at providing adequate care and protection to the mentally sick. The concept therefore was not put up for the basis of medical treatments to the sick but for social purposes.

Social psychiatry came about and thereafter is when the medical role in the asylums was introduced. The asylum provided accommodation to the sick and also to several workers who had to stay overnight to watch over the patients. The asylum is also seen as an area for job opportunities especially for the social workers and those who were involved in guidance and counseling of the patient. Thereafter, medical professionals in the mental health were introduced and the asylum became both a social rehabilitation center and a medical institute.

Other few concepts were developed in psychosocial rehabilitation but one that stood out was the safe asylum which ended up being the most effective hence applied even in the modern day. However, in some countries mental patients are not allowed in hospitals but are taken care of in their respective homes. Psychiatric nurses work on these kinds of patients at home even though in some cases back in the colonial period, the mentally challenged were sold to other countries and were regarded as dead, (Stuart, 2005).

Several theories were put to explain the mentally sick isolation from the rest of the society. Back in the 13th century, the mentally disabled were isolated and thought to be people who needed spiritual guidance to come back to their normal senses. Psychiatric nurses were responsible for the well being of the sick and were titled the soul friends of the mentally sick. This is due to the fact that the mental disability was thought to be connected to ones soul. Another theory that explains why the mentally ill were to be isolated is the fact that they were considered to be a threat to the rest of the sane society. They therefore had to be sent away from family, friends and the whole society.

In today’s scenarios where a clinical nurse is held responsible of a mentally challenged patient, there are many roles that we play as nurses. The main one is the physical help since the mentally sick cannot function own their own. These include washing them, feeding, dressing them and taking them to the washroom. The rest of the roles involved are giving proper medication, interacting with the patient socially and this may involve counseling the patient. The nurse is put to task and has to show respect to the patient and also trying to understand the reasons for the patient ending up mentally challenged. Basically a nurse has to give full support physically, socially, spiritually and most importantly medically.

In conclusion, the psychosocial rehabilitation in the BC era is quite different from the modern day rehabilitation sites. None the less, the BC era gave a firm platform for the modern day psychiatric hospitals as the concepts are being put to use and some of the old theories are still believed to be the main reasons why a mentally handicapped person should be isolated. Psychiatric nursing has proved to be the pillar of most rehabilitation centers and their expertise is of importance, (Chan, 2009).

References

O'Connor, P., Herring, M., & Caravalho, A. (January 01, 2010). Mental Health Benefits of Strength Training in Adults. American Journal of Lifestyle Medicine, 4, 5, 377-396.

Blustein, D., McWhirter, E., & Perry, J. (January 01, 2005). An Emancipatory Communitarian Approach to Vocational Development Theory, Research, and Practice. The Counseling Psychologist, 33, 2, 141-179.

Askwith, B. C. (2007). Post-treatment exercise counseling and programming preferences of women living with breast cancer. Vancouver: University of British Columbia. Simpson, G., Secheny, T., Lane-Brown, A., Strettles, B., Ferry, K., & Phillips, J. (May 01, 2004).

Post-acute Rehabilitation for People with Traumatic Brain Injury: A Model Description and Evaluation of the Liverpool Hospital Transitional Living Program. Brain Impairment, 5, 1, 67-80.

Haigh, R., & Clarke, A. (January 01, 1999). Effectiveness of rehabilitation for spinal pain. Clinical Rehabilitation, 13, 63-81. Wilson, H. S., & Kneisl, C. R. (1996).

Psychiatric nursing. Menlo Park, Calif: Addison-Wesley Nursing. Stuart, G. W., & Laraia, M. T. (2005).

Principles and practice of psychiatric nursing. St. Louis: Elsevier Mosby. Chan, F., Cardoso, E. S., & Chronister, J. A. (2009).

Understanding psychosocial adjustment to chronic illness and disability: A handbook for evidence-based practitioners in rehabilitation. New York: Springer. Salzer, Mark (2006).

Psychiatric Rehabilitation Skills in Practice: A CPRP Preparation and Skills Workbook. Linthicum, Maryland: United States Psychiatric Rehabilitation Association. ISBN 978-0-9655843-6-4. OCLC 168391421.


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